Ephesians 1:1-14

1:1.Παῦλος ἀπόστολος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ τοῖς ἁγίοις τοῖς οὖσιν [ἐν Ἐφέσῳ] καὶ πιστοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοοῦ

Παῦλος — Nominative absolute with appositional modifier (ἀπόστολος).

Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ — Subjective genitive or genitive of source or perhaps the genitive marks to whom this representative is accountable, i.e., genitive of subordination.

διὰ θελήματος – Means, modified by a subjective genitive θεοῦ.

τοῖς – Nominalizer – links ἁγίοις…πιστοῖς (Granville Sharp rule), adjectives functioning substantively.

Dative of recipient.

τοῖς οὖσιν – Adjectival participle of εἰμί.

ἐν Ἐφέσῳ — Locative of place (textual issue)

ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ — Association (Campbell, Paul and Union With Christ, 112-13)

1:2. χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.

Standard prayer which begins NT letters. Nominal sentence. χάρις…εἰρήνη are the subjects. Verb is implied.

ὑμῖν – Dative of possession.

ἀπὸ θεοῦκυρίου – Source.

πατρὸς – Genitive in apposition to θεοῦ. ἡμῶν could be genitive of relationship or subordination.

Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ — Genitive in apposition to κυρίου.

1:3. εὐλογητὸς θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εὐλογήσας ἡμᾶς ἐν πάσῃ εὐλογίᾳ πνευματικῇ ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις ἐν Χριστῷ

Main clause of the sentence that extends from vv. 3-14 (cf. 1 Peter 1:3-12). Nominal clause – no expressed verb.

εὐλογητὸς – Predicate adjective defining a characteristic of the subject.

θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ – Nominative subject of the implied verb. Single article covers both nouns and links them together (Granville Sharp rule).

τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ — τοῦ κυρίου genitive of relationship. Why is the article used – anaphoric? Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ is appositional. The writer gives emphasis through position to κύριος. ἡμῶν is a genitive of subordination.

εὐλογήσας ἡμᾶς – Adjectival participle modifying ὁ θεός – aorist tense form indicates completed action.

ἐν πάσῃ εὐλογίᾳ πνευματικῇ — Manner – πάσῃ — inclusive. πνευματικῇ – fourth attributive position – some emphasis? Note the repetition of terms related to εὐλογέω. What does this contribute rhetorically to the discourse?

ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις – Locative of place. The adjective functions as a noun, with article functioning as a nominalizer.

ἐν Χριστῷ — Association. The triple use of the preposition ἐν is noteworthy. Why the shortened reference to Jesus?

1:4. καθὼς ἐξελέξατο ἡμᾶς ἐν αὐτῷ πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἁγίους καὶ ἀμώμους κατενώπιον αὐτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ,

καθὼς – Marks a comparative clause – “just as.”

ἐξελέξατο ἡμᾶς – Aorist tense form indicates a completed action. Why the middle voice? (indirect middle, self-benefactive). Who is the subject? Probably θεός. Who is the object? ἐκλέγομαι – choose in accordance with preference – can be completed by an infinitive of purpose.

ἐν αὐτῷ — Probably association – pronoun refers to Χριστῷ.

πρὸ καταβολῆς (foundation) κόσμου – Prepositional phrase with a temporal sense of prior time. κόσμου – genitive of description.

εἶναι ἡμᾶς – Infinitive of purpose with ἡμᾶς (reference?) as accusative subject.

ἁγίους καὶ ἀμώμους – Predicate adjectives – the equative verb puts the subject in these classifications. They are accusative because the subject of the infinitive is in the accusative case.

κατενώπιον αὐτοῦ — Improper preposition – presence. What is the referent of the pronoun?

ἐν ἀγάπῃ — ἐν signify cause, means, condition. The phrase could modify the preceding predicate adjectives or the adverbial participle that follows.

1:5. προορίσας ἡμᾶς εἰς υἱοθεσίαν διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς αὐτόν, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ

προορίσας ἡμᾶς – “Decide beforehand (with εἰς indicating purpose)” (BDAG). 1 Cor 2:7 (see Eph 1:11-12). Aorist tense form indicates a completed action. Note another first person plural pronoun. Adverbial participle – what verbal entity does it modify – εὐλογήσας or ἐξελέξατο? What is the function of this participle – causal, means, circumstantial, temporal?

εἰς υἱοθεσίαν – Purpose. Qualifies the participle.

διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ — Intermediate means. Qualifies the participle.

εἰς αὐτόν – Advantage or benefit? Qualifies the participle. Probably refers to θεός.

κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν. Standard. Qualifies the participle. “Good will, favour, something that pleases.”

τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ. Source? Attributive genitive (“willful/intentional favour”). Attributed genitive (“favourable will”). Objective genitive (“favour generated by his will”). Whose will?

1:6. εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ ἧς ἐχαρίτωσεν ἡμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ,

εἰς ἔπαινον – Goal or purpose vv. 12, 14. Qualifies the participle.

δόξης – Objective genitive vv. 12, 14.

τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ — Epexegetical genitive; attributive genitive (his glorious grace). Qualifies the participle. How does this lexeme differ in meaning from εὐδοκία?

ἧς ἐχαρίτωσεν ἡμᾶς – Relative clause modifying either δόξα or χάρις. Adjectival in function. The case of the pronoun is attracted to the case of the referent, genitive. However, in its clause it is probably a dative of means. The verb is cognate with the preceding χάρις. Does this give any specificity to the referent of the pronoun? The aorist tense form indicates a completed action.

ἐν τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ — The preposition may express association (as ἐν Χριστῷ) or it may be means. The participle is perfect passive and is substantival. The article functions as nominalizer.  It may reflect the previous ἐν ἀγάπῃ. The perfect tense form indicates a stative aspect, depicting a condition or state based upon a previous completed action.

1:7. ἐν ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν διὰ τοῦ αἷματος αὐτοῦ, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν παραπτωμάτων, κατὰ τὸ πλοῦτος τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ,

ἐν — Referent of the relative pronoun probably is the preceding ἠγαπημένῳ. The preposition may express association or means. See vv. 11, 13.

ἔχομεν – Present active indicative – present tense form indicates an imperfective aspect. “Possess.” Who is the subject?

τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν – Direct object. What does the article add? Monadic?

διὰ τοῦ αἷματος αὐτοῦ — Means or manner. Who is the referent of αὐτοῦ?

τὴν ἄφεσιν – Accusative in apposition to τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν.

τῶν παραπτωμάτων – Objective genitive. How does this noun differ from ἁμαρτία? Why plural?

κατὰ τὸ πλοῦτος – Standard, qualifying ἄφεσιν or ἔχομεν?

τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ — Epexegetical genitive; attributive genitive; genitive of description? Note the same descriptor in v. 6.

1:8. ἧς ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς ἡμᾶς, ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ φρονήσει

ἧς – Direct object, but attracted to the case of the referent, χάριτος (see v. 6 for analogy).

ἐπερίσσευσεν – Transitive usage, taking a direct object. Aorist tense form indicates a perfective aspect. “Cause something to exist in abundance.”

εἰς ἡμᾶς – Directional/advantage – “for us.” Qualifies ἐπερίσσευσεν.

ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ φρονήσει – Marks a state or condition; means; reference. What is the difference in meaning between the two nouns? πάσῃ is used inclusively or in an elative sense “with complete wisdom…”. Why no article?

1:9. γνωρίσας ἡμῖν τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν αὐτοῦ ἣν προέθετο ἐν αὐτῷ

γνωρίσας – Aorist active participle. Who is the referent – subject of the previous verb? Adverbial. Aorist tense form indicates a completed action.

ἡμῖν τὸ μυστήριον – Indirect objective followed by direct object. Why the article?

τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ — Epexegetical genitive – indicates the content of the μυστήριον or objective genitive.

κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν αὐτοῦ — Atandard. Qualifies the participle. Who is the referent for αὐτοῦ? See v. 5.

ἣν – Verse divisions are arbitrary. Relative pronoun; direct object of προέθετο. Referent is εὐδοκίαν.

προέθετο – Aorist middle indicative – indicates a completed action. The middle form suggests the sense “plan, purpose, intend.” Middle form suggests a commissive or intensive semantic sense.

ἐν αὐτῷ — Association; means; reference? Who is the referent for the pronoun? Qualifies προέθετο.

1:10  εἰς οἰκονομίαν τοῦ πληρώματος τῶν καιρῶν, ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι τὰ πάντα ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ, τὰ ἐπὶ τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἐν αὐτῷ.

εἰς οἰκονομίαν – “Arrangement, order, plan” (cf. 3:9). Goal/purpose; reference. Qualifies προέθετο. Hoehner, Ephesians, considers εἰς to have a temporal connotation (BDAG 289.2 – extension of time – until, in).

τοῦ πληρώματος – Objective genitive – plans related to the completion of specific times.

καιρῶν – Genitive of description. Why the plural? Do they refer to various historical ‘ages’ or the various periods in which Yahweh made salvation available?

ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι – Aorist middle infinitive. Indicates a completed action. It completes the sense of προέθετο, i.e., explains God’s intention. “Sum up, recapitulate” (see Romans 13:9). The middle sense might be indirect and self-benefactive.

τὰ πάντα – Direct object. Inclusive of everything. The article functions as a nominalizer.

ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ — Association. Qualifies ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι. Why the article? Anaphoric? Deictic? Note v. 12.

τὰ ἐπὶ τοῖς οὐρανοῖς – τὰ functions as an adjectivizer, making the prepositional phrase attributive in function to τὰ πάντα. ἐπί — in or on – answers the question ‘where’.

καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς – Similar to previous. Here the noun is in the genitive with the sense “on, upon.” The repeated article distinguishes these two categories.

ἐν αὐτῷ — repeats ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ. Transitions to the next clause.

1:11. ἐν καὶ ἐκληρώθημεν προορισθέντες κατὰ πρόθεσιν τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐνεργοῦντος κατὰ τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ

ἐν — “In whom” – picking the previous ἐν αὐτῷ. Could signify association (ἐν Χριστῷ).

καὶ — Ascensive (indeed, also)

ἐκληρώθημεν – aorist passive indicative. It can mean “receive by lot” which would here then indicate a sense of inheritance. Or some think it means “our lot has been cast with,” i.e. ,our destiny is now tied up with Christ.

προορισθέντες —  aorist passive participle, nom. masc. pl. References the subject of ἐκληρώθημεν, but is adverbial in function, defining the verb in some fashion. ὁρίζω means “set limit to, define; determine, appoint, designate” (Heb 4:7; Acts 17:26; 2:23; Rom 1:4). The prefix indicates “decide upon beforehand, predetermine” (Rom 8:30; Eph 1:5).

κατὰ πρόθεσιν – κατά + accusative defines a standard. πρόθεσις in Paul’s letters means “plan, purpose” whether human or divine. Earlier usage has the sense of “setting forth of something in public, presentation.” This is one of the terms used in the LXX to describe the “showbread.”

τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐνεργοῦντος – Subjective genitive – defines the one making the plans or pursuing the purpose. Present active participle – what is the aspect of this tense form? What does the verb tells us about God? τὰ πάντα means “the totality” and often refers to everything in the universe.

κατὰ τὴν βουλῆν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ — This rather repeats the sense of κατὰ πρόθεσιν, but it modifies ἐνεργοῦντες. It defines the standard used by the one who is “dynamically working.” What is the point of this repetition of related terms – πρόθεσις, βουλή, θέλημα?

1:12. εἰς τὸ εἶναι ἡμᾶς εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης αὐτοῦ τοὺς προηλπικότας ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ

εἰς τὸ εἶναι ἡμᾶς – εἰς + articulated infinitive often expresses purpose. ἡμᾶς is the accusative subject of the infinitive.

εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης αὐτοῦ — εἰς here also indicates purpose, but with a nominal it means “for praise….” See v. 6. Qualifies the subject of the infinitive. The genitive δόξης would be an objective genitive or an attributive genitive (“for his glorious praise”).

τοὺς προηλπικότας – Adjectival participle defining ἡμᾶς. Perfect active tense-form – what might be the aspectual significance? Does this refer to Jewish Christians or non-Jewish Christians? What difference does the referent make? Note the shift from first person in this verse to second person in the following verse back to first person in v.14.

ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ — ἐν has a locative sense or it may express association. Is the article significant here? Compare v. 10, 20 with v.1. and 2:6.

1:13. ἐν καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀκούσαντες τὸν λόγον τῆς ἀληθείας, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς σωτηρίας ὑμῶν ἐν καὶ πιστεύσαντες ἐσφραγίσθητε τῷ πνεύματι τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τῷ ἁγίῳ,

ἐν 1° — Prepositional phrase with a relative pronoun. The referent is the prior Χριστῷ.

καὶ ὑμεῖς – Ascensive – emphasizes ὑμεῖς. What does the shift to second person plural mean? Probably the subject of ἐφραγίσθητε.

ἀκούσαντες – Aorist participle. No main verb in the clause. What is the function of this participle? Probably adverbial and causal.

τὸν λόγον τῆς ἀληθείας – Accusative object of the participle. The genitive may be attributive, i.e. “the true word/message.”

τὸ εὐαγγέλιον — Appositional to τὸν λόγον. The genitive may be objective genitive – “good news about your salvation” or it might indicate source, i.e. “the good news which is the source of your salvation.”

ἐν 2° — Resumptive of the previous usage at the beginning of the verse?

καὶ πιστεύσαντες – Ascensive – aorist participle. They both heard the message and believed it.

ἐσφραγίσθητε – Aorist passive.

τῷ πνεύματι — The dative may be means or manner. Defines how this “sealing” occurred. The placement of genitive between the noun and the attributive adjective clearly indicates the noun being qualified. It could be a genitive of description, or source.

1:14. ἐστιν ἀρραβὼν τῆς κληρονομίας ἡμῶν, εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως, εἰς ἔπαινον τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ.

ἐστιν – Relative clause. ὅ is the subject of the clause and its referent is πνεῦμα.

ἀρραβὼν τῆς κληρονομίας ἡμῶν – Predicate modifier. It identifies πνεῦμα with ἀρραβὼν. The genitive defines what this “guarantee” relates to. κληρονμομία picks up the cognate verb in v.11. ἡμῶν probably expresses possession.

εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν — What does this prepositional phrase qualify? Probably ἐσφραγίσθητε. εἰς could indicate purpose (for) or extent (until). The genitive noun probably refers to the people of God as his possession (cf. 1 Peter 2:9-10). Seems to suggest a second phase of redemption. If the previous phrase qualifies ἐσφραγίσθητε, then this phrase probably does also. Genitive is probably objective as in vv. 6, 12. Expresses purpose.