- καὶ ἐγένετο λόγος κυρίου πρὸς Ιωναν τὸν τοῦ Αμαθι λέγων
καὶ ἐγένετο λόγος κυρίου. The Greek translation follows the Hebrew word order: verb, subject/object. γίνομαι can have the sense “come into existence, emerge” and in the prophetic corpus often is associated with λόγος (“message”). This expression occurs as the introduction to several of The Twelve Minor Prophets. The lack of an article with λόγος probably reflects the Hebrew construct idiom where the head noun always occurs without the article. However, it is still definite to some degree because of the individual (κυρίου = Yahweh) who is identified with this “λόγος.” κύριος is the usual equivalent for Yahweh (יהוה) in LXX. In 2 Kings 14.25 דבר is rendered as ῥῆμα.
πρὸς Ιωναν τὸν τοῦ Αμαθι λέγων. The prepositional phrase defines the recipient of Yahweh’s message. We have no idea why this person is chosen for the task. As you can tell from the form Ιωνας in v. 3, this proper name is transliterated into Greek (יונה) as a declinable noun. Often Hebrew names ending in ה are transliterated in Greek with a final sigma, e.g., Ἀβδιας (Obediah). In this verse it has an accusative form. The indeclinable transliteration Αμαθι reflects the other common strategy when rendering proper names. In such cases an article often accompanies to indicate case. The collocation τὸν τοῦ when used in the context of names usually signifies “the son of” (a shortened form of τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ Αμαθι). This is an idiomatic rendering of בן־אמתי. See 2 Kings 14.25 Ἰωνᾶ υἱοῦ Ἀμαθέι.
- ἀνάστηθι καὶ πορεύθητι εἰς Νινευη τῆν πόλιν τῆν μεγάλην καὶ κήρυξον ἐν αὐτῇ, ὅτι ἀνέβη ἡ κραυγὴ τῆς κακίας αὐτῆς πρός με.
ἀνάστηθι καὶ πορεύθητι. This verse contains God’s instruction to Jonah, but we do not yet know what the message for Nineveh will be. It begins with two aorist imperatives. The first is a first aorist active and the second passive, but with an active sense. G (the translator) adds καί; in the MT (Masoretic Hebrew text) there is no connective between the two imperatives. See the wording of 3.1. ἀνίστημι is a common rendering for the Hebrew verb קום as in 1.3, 6; 3.2,3.
εἰς Νινευη τῆν πόλιν τῆν μεγάλην. Νινευη is an indeclinable transliteration of נינוה. Herodotus calls this city Νίνος. τῆν πόλιν τῆν μεγάλην is appositional and its accusative form indicates the case of the proper noun. The word order follows normal Hebrew work order (adjectives follow nouns). The second attributive position in Greek often expresses a bit of emphasis, but not so here. Position is due to Hebrew influence.
καὶ κήρυξον ἐν αὐτῇ. The Greek verb is an aorist active imperative. The Hebrew verbal phrase means “cry against it” (קרא עליה), with an aggressive sense, perhaps with the idea of condemnation. The Greek translation means “make a proclamation in it,” which expresses a different perspective than the Hebrew text. Is this a different assessment of the mission (cf. Jon. 3.2)? The Hebrew verb occurs also in 1.14; 3.8 and is translated as ἀναβοάω (“cry out”).
ὅτι ἀνέβη…πρός με. The ὅτι is probably causal (“because, for”) and gives a reason for this action. The verb is second aorist active (“has come up, ascended”). The adverbial prepositional phrase indicates the party to whom the cry has ascended. The referent is Yahweh. See Ex. 2.23: καὶ ἀνέβη ἡ βοὴ αὐτῶν πρὸς τὸν θεὸν.
ἡ κραυγὴ τῆς κακίας αὐτῆς. This is the subject of ἀνέβη. It is modified by a genitive which may define the source or cause of the cry or it may define the content of the cry, i.e., the raucous sound of evil. It may be a subjective genitive, i.e., evil has generated this cry. The Hebrew text says “because their evil has ascended before me.” Note that G has a singular possessive pronoun, whereas MT seems to identify the inhabitants of Nineveh as generating this cry. So it is unclear whether G means “the city cries because of the evil being done it” or “the city’s evil actions cry out.” κραυγή can mean a prayer for help in time of difficulty (see Jon. 2.3). However, in Gen. 18.20 in relation to Sodom and Gomorrah it means the sound of evil.
- καὶ ἀνέστη Ιωνας τοῦ φυγεῖν εἰς Θαρσις ἐκ προσώπου κυρίου καὶ κατέβη εἰς Ἰόππην καὶ εὗρε πλοῖον βαδίζον εἰς Θαρσις καὶ ἔδωκε τὸ ναῦλον αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐνέβη εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦ πλεῦσαι μετ’ αὐτῶν εἰς Θαρσις ἐκ προσώπου κυρίου.
καὶ ἀνέστη Ιωνας. G uses the same verb as at the beginning of v.2. We do not know whether this activity is in obedience or disobedience to God until the infinitive phrase is heard. There is complete serial fidelity with the MT in terms of word order and morphemic representation. Notice the repeated καί as a connective. This is not literary Greek style, but is understandable Greek (compare Mark 1).
τοῦ φυγεῖν εἰς Θαρσις ἐκ προσώπου κυρίου. The infinitive with the genitive article expresses purpose and is a good equivalent for the Hebrew infinitive marked by the preposition ל which similarly signifies purpose. Θαρσις is another indeclinable transliterated proper name. The Hebrew name is rendered as “Carthage” in Isa. 23.1, 6, 10, 14 (cf. Ezek. 27.12, 25). The phrase εἰς Θαρσις occurs three times, as in the MT, to give prominence to Jonah’s rebellious action. This prepositional chain (ἐκ προσώπου) translates the Hebrew prepositional chain מפני from the face of. This again shows Semitic influence upon the resultant Greek text.
καὶ κατέβη εἰς Ἰόππην. G uses three compounds of βαίνω in these two verses — ἀναβαίνω, καταβαίνω, ἐμβαίνω. This has the effect of tying the discourse together and creating a bit of paronomasia. Ἰόππην is a declinable Greek proper noun. It was an important port city at this time in Israel’s history, with prior history as a Phoenician city.
καὶ εὗρε πλοῖον. The Hebrew noun אניה “ship” is unarticulated, i.e., a ship and G reflects this with πλοῖον.
βαδίζον εἰς Θαρσις. The present participle βαδίζον is probably adjectival, i.e., which was going.
καὶ ἔδωκε τὸ ναῦλον αὐτοῦ. τὸ ναῦλον = fare, passage. δίδωμι τὸ ναῦλον in Greek means to pay the freight for something. What does αὐτοῦ refer to? Jonah? The ship? Is Jonah the sole passenger?
καὶ ἐνέβη εἰς αὐτὸ. ἐμβαίνω εἰς means to step into, embark (idiom found in Xenophon, Anabasis 1, 4, 7). See John 6. 24.
τοῦ πλεῦσαι μετ’ αὐτῶν εἰς Θαρσις ἐκ προσώπου κυρίου. Another infinitive with genitive article to indicate purpose, i.e., “to sail.” In the MT the verb is בא, go, which has many different senses and is rendered previously in this verse by βαδίζω.
- καὶ κύριος ἐξήγειρε πνεῦμα εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ ἐγένετο κλύδων μέγας ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, καὶ τὸ πλοῖον ἐκινδύνευε συντριβῆναι.
καὶ κύριος ἐξήγειρε πνεῦμα εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν. Notice the word order in the first and third clauses. It reflects Hebrew word order: subject – verb. Such clause structure following waw indicates a waw-disjunctive situation. It could mark contrast, or special circumstances, or additional information which does not necessarily advance the plot-line. In both cases G renders it with καί, without differentiating the waw in any specific way. The Hebrew verb which ἐξήγειρε renders is a causative verb meaning “hurl, cast” (NRSV) (it occurs also in vv. 5, 12, 15). However, G’s equivalent means “awake, rouse.” It is probably aorist here (see vv. 11, 13). The wind in the MT has an adjective “great,” which G ignores. Do these transformations lessen the violence of Yahweh’s action expressed in the Hebrew text? πνεῦμα can have various meanings depending on context. εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν – what is the sense of the preposition here – “towards”? No sea has been mentioned up to this point in time, so what is the sense of the article? Perhaps it mimics the Hebrew text.
καὶ ἐγένετο κλύδων μέγας ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ. Notice that G here does render the adjective גדול with the noun — κλύδων μέγας, in contrast with its occurrence in the first clause, and follows the Hebrew word order. The Hebrew word סער means “tempest,” which G interprets as “wave” (see vv. 11, 14; see Luke 8.23-24). The verb ἐγένετο here probably means “occurred.”
καὶ τὸ πλοῖον ἐκινδύνευε συντριβῆναι. καί could have a resultative nuance here, “and so….” ἐκινδύνευε is an imperfect tense form, completed by an infinitive, meaning “was in danger to be shattered.” MT has a word play חשבה להשבר – the ship was intended for destruction. G employs a reasonable idiomatic rendering.
- καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν οἱ ναυτικοὶ καὶ ἀνεβόων ἕκαστος πρὸς τὸν θεὸν αὐτῶν καὶ ἐκβολὴν ἐποιήσαντο τῶν σκευῶν τῶν ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν τοῦ κουφισθῆναι ἀπ’ αὐτῶν· Ιωνας δὲ κατέβη εἰς τὴν κοίλην τοῦ πλοίου καὶ ἐκάθευδε καὶ ἔρρεγχε.
καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν οἱ ναυτικοὶ. The translator displays general serial fidelity with the MT.
καὶ ἀνεβόων ἕκαστος πρὸς τὸν θεὸν αὐτῶν. ἀνεβόων is an imperfect tense form, meaning “began crying aloud” (see v. 14 and 3.8). MT reads “his God,” but G makes an ad sensum change in line with the number of the verb in the clause. τὸν θεὸν is not a reference to Yahweh, but has the sense “to the god which they knew” (but compare the similar construction at 3.8 where G uses a singular pronoun). ἕκαστος renders איש which functions as an indefinite pronoun here.
καὶ ἐκβολὴν ἐποιήσαντο τῶν σκευῶν τῶν ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν. ἐκβολὴν…τῶν σκευῶν – G uses a verb-noun construction to render the Hebrew verb ויטלו which means “jettison.” Because of this choice, he has to make τῶν σκευῶν modify ἐκβολὴν, whereas in MT the Hebrew noun “cargo/הכלים” functions as the object of the verb. G literally means “they made a jettisoning/discharge of the stuff which was in the boat….” Aristotle EN 1110a.9 uses the noun in this way. G employs the article with the prepositional phrase to render a Hebrew relative clause.
τοῦ κουφισθῆναι ἀπ’ αὐτῶν. Articulated, genitive infinitive expresses purpose (see v. 3). MT uses an active verb, followed by a prepositional phrase, but G has a passive formation. NRSV seems to apply the pronoun in the prepositional phrase to the sailors (to lighten it for them), but is this the sense of G? The pronoun in G’s text probably refers to the cargo items (ἀπ’ αὐτῶν).
Ιωνας δὲ κατέβη εἰς τὴν κοίλην τοῦ πλοίου. The use of δέ suggests a new topic in the discourse. Note also the word order, with the subject first. So this is probably “sidebar” information and does not advance the flow of the plot. Here is another use of καταβαίνω (see v.3). κοίλος is an adjective, but here is used substantively to describe the hold of a ship as sometimes occurs in Classical Greek writers (it literal means “hollow”). It is not a technical term (see 2.1). πλοῖον refers to any kind of boat. Although the verb is aorist, in English we would render a clause of information like this as a pluperfect. Here G treats it as a simple past tense – “now Jonah went down into the hold of the ship….” Did this happen as the storm was occurring?
καὶ ἐκάθευδε καὶ ἔρρεγχε. Two imperfect tense forms – “and he was lying asleep and snoring.” The verb ῥέγχω can describe a horse snorting, humans wheezing, people snoring. It only occurs in the LXX in Jon 1.5, 6, both times rendering the niphal forms of רדם = “be or fall into a heavy sleep; stunning effect of awe or dread.” Other equivalents in the LXX include ἀποσκαρίζειν (gasp for air, convulse) Judg 4.21 (A); ἐξιστάναι (pass out, lose consciousness) Judg 4.21 (A); θαμβεῖν (be astonished) Dan Th. 8.18; κατανύσσεσθαι (affect profoundly) Dan Th.10.9; κοιμᾶν (lie down to sleep) Dan LXX 8.18; νυστάζω (doze) Ps 75(76):6; πίπτειν (to prostrate) Dan Th 8.18. In my opinion the translator has chosen an apt equivalent, indicating graphically the deep sleep which Jonah experienced. The cognate Hebrew nounתרדמה occurs in Gen. 2.21 and is rendered as ἔκστασις.
- καὶ προσῆλθε πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ πρῳρεὺς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Τί σὺ ῥέγχεις; ἀνάστα ἐπικαλοῦ τὸν θεόν σου, ὅπως διασώσῃ ὁ θεὸς ἡμᾶς καὶ μὴ ἀπολώμεθα.
καὶ προσῆλθε πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ πρῳρεὺς. G’s text shows serial fidelity with MT. Note again the general parataxis (καὶ…καὶ). ὁ πρῳρεὺς (skipper) renders רב החבל “chief of sailors.” This is a good translation.
καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ. Standard equivalents.
Τί σὺ ῥέγχεις; In G the question means “why are you snoring?” As NRSV indicates, the question in Hebrew means “What are you doing sound asleep?”, literally “what to you sleeping?” Participles in Hebrew often get rendered as present tense forms.
ἀνάστα ἐπικαλοῦ τὸν θεόν σου. Note the lack of particles, which is a way to express emotion – probably a bit of agitation or anger? G notes the imperatives in the source text and renders them as an aorist imperative, followed by a present imperative. The accent on ἐπικαλοῦ indicates a middle imperative. ἀνάστα is a second aorist imperative from ἀνίστημι. The difference in the tense forms of the imperative may suggest the sense “get up, start imploring your god….” Compare how G rendered two consecutive imperatives in v. 2. Again τὸν θεόν σου is not a specific reference to Yahweh, given that the captain is the one speaking and he is probably a non-Jew.
ὅπως διασώσῃ ὁ θεὸς ἡμᾶς. The Hebrew particle is אולי, an adverb with the sense “perhaps.” In Classical Greek final clauses following verbs of effort sometimes are introduced by ὅπως (Smyth, Greek Grammar, § 2214) with the subjunctive. Its meaning limits the idea of purpose to manner and is more restrictive in Classical Greek than ἵνα (Smyth, §2193a). A significant number of Greek manuscripts texts read ει πως (perhaps). The Hebrew verb יתעשׁת is related to an Aramaic verb meaning to “give thought to, think about.” It is rare in the OT (see Dan. 6.4). G may have thought it was a form of ישׁע meaning “to save, deliver” and so chose διασώσῃ as its rendering. The article with ὁ θεὸς may be anaphoric and deictic “this god.”
καὶ μὴ ἀπολώμεθα. The negative with subjunctive regularly is μή.
- καὶ εἶπαν ἕκαστος πρὸς πλησίον αὐτοῦ Δεῦτε βάλωμεν κλήρους καὶ ἐπιγνῶμεν τίνος ἕνεκεν ἡ κακία αὕτη ἐστὶν ἐν ἡμῖν. καὶ ἔβαλον κλήρους, καὶ ἔπεσεν ὁ κλῆρος ἐπὶ Ιωναν.
καὶ εἶπαν ἕκαστος πρὸς πλησίον αὐτοῦ. While some Greek manuscripts agree with the MT in reading a plural verb, many have a singular form here, under the influence of the ἕκαστος (see v.5).
Δεῦτε βάλωμεν κλήρους. δεῦτε is a plural imperative form, which often is followed asyndetically as here with a plural hortative and which urges some collective activity (see Mark 12.7). βάλωμεν = 2nd aorist 1st pl. subjunctive. The expression “cast lots” occurs in a slightly different form in the writings of Homer.
καὶ ἐπιγνῶμεν. The conjunction καί has a resultative sense, i.e., “and so….” ἐπιγινώσκω as a compound form may suggest “and let us really discern….”
τίνος ἕνεκεν ἡ κακία αὕτη ἐστὶν ἐν ἡμῖν. G renders well the Hebrew prepositional and relative construction בשלמו which seems to mean “on account of whom.” G uses a postposition ἕνεκεν. The same construction occurs in the following verse, but it renders a different Hebrew construction באשר למי. G adds ἐστιν. Why? This is an indirect question.
καὶ ἔβαλον κλήρους. καί again could have a bit of a resultative sense, i.e., “and so.”
καὶ ἔπεσεν ὁ κλῆρος ἐπὶ Ιωναν. See Acts 1.26. ἐπί could mean “against” here.
- καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν Ἀπάγγειλον ἡμῖν τίνος ἕνεκεν ἡ κακία αὕτη ἐστὶν ἐν ἡμῖν. τίς σου ἡ ἐργασία ἐστί; καὶ πόθεν ἔρχῃ, καὶ ἐκ ποίας χώρας καὶ ἐκ ποίου λαοῦ εἶ σύ;
καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν.
Ἀπάγγειλον ἡμῖν τίνος ἕνεκεν ἡ κακία αὕτη ἐστὶν ἐν ἡμῖν. ἀπαγγέλλω means “inform, tell, announce, narrate.” See v.10. Even though the Hebrew structure is somewhat different than what we find in v. 7, G renders the interrogative in exactly the same way. It serves to tie the discourse together more tightly. G again adds ἐστίν. The series of questions is expanded. Does τίνος ἕνεκεν mean the same thing here? Is τίνος masculine or neuter?
τίς σου ἡ ἐργασία ἐστί. G changes the word order by placing the possessive pronoun before ἡ ἐργασία. It gives more prominence to the pronoun. In Hebrew possessive pronouns usually are suffixes attached to the ends of nouns. G also adds ἐστί.
καὶ πόθεν ἔρχῃ. A number of manuscripts add και που πορευη which is marked with an obelus in hexaplaric texts, i.e., it is not in the Hebrew text. So this indicates that it is a pre-Origenian addition, but probably not original to the translation.
καὶ ἐκ ποίας χώρας καὶ ἐκ ποίου λαοῦ εἶ σύ. G changes the syntax somewhat and combines the last two questions into one compounded interrogative. MT reads “what is your country and of what people are you?” Note another added εἶ. καί 3° is an addition.
- καὶ εἶπε πρὸς αὐτούς Δοῦλος κυρίου ἐγώ εἰμι καὶ τὸν κύριον θεὸν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἐγὼ σέβομαι, ὃς ἐποίησε τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ τἠν ξηράν.
καὶ εἶπε πρὸς αὐτούς. G continues to render his Hebrew text with serial fidelity.
Δοῦλος κυρίου ἐγώ εἰμι. This is direct speech and functions as the object clause of εἶπε. The verb εἰμί often is used to expression characterization. In Exodus we often find the expression ἐγώ εἰμι κύριος. MT places the predicate nominative first, giving it emphasis. However, MT reads עברי אנכי, “I am a Hebrew,” which is quite different from G. It seems that G read his Hebrew text as עבד י, which suggests that he expected to find abbreviations for the tetragrammaton in his Hebrew text. Kaminka (MGWJ 72(1928), 248) finds about 50 cases of the shift between ד and ר in The Twelve. The description of the prophet Jonah in IV Kings 14.15(MT II Kings 14.25) reads ἐν χειρὶ δούλου αὐτοῦ Ιὠνά and this may have influenced the translator’s understanding of the text. Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion render it as εβραιος εγω ειμι. In the translation of The Twelve ἐγώ εἰμι often renders the long form of the first person pronoun אנכי in distinction to simple ἐγώ which renders the short form אני.
καὶ τὸν κύριον θεὸν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἐγὼ σέβομαι. This is the only context in Greek Jonah where we have the expression τὸν κύριον θεὸν. Usually it is κύριος ὁ θεός. A number of textual witnesses read κυριον τον θεον, which may be original. However, if Ziegler’s choice is the original text, then the article may be anaphoric, i.e., “this Lord, God of heaven”. The expression σέβομαι θεόν occurs frequently in Greek literature, particularly the works of the Tragedians. However, in the LXX it is relatively rare. Normally the verb ירא is rendered by φοβέομαι (see v.10, 16). σέβομαι is the term used in Acts to describe non-Jewish “god-fearers.” This is the only context in Jonah where it occurs and it seems to distinguish Jonah from the sailors in terms of their response to Yahweh.
ὃς ἐποίησε τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ τἠν ξηράν. God is defined as creator of sea and land.
- καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν οἱ ἄνδρες φόβον μέγαν καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν Τί τοῦτο ἐποίησας; διότι ἔγνωσαν οἱ ἄνδρες ὅτι ἐκ προσώπου κυρίου ἦν φεύγων, ὅτι ἀπήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς.
καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν οἱ ἄνδρες φόβον μέγαν. G again tends towards serial fidelity in representing his Hebrew text. The use of the cognate accusative φόβον renders the Hebrew text well, but also suits Greek idiom. See 1.16; 3.2; 4.1, 6; Mark 4:41. The rendering οἱ ἄνδρες assumes that the sailors were males.
καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν. Standard renderings.
Τί τοῦτο ἐποίησας. G’s text could mean “Why have you done this?”, but the Hebrew text is “what is this you have done.”
διότι ἔγνωσαν οἱ ἄνδρες. διότι generally does not mark an independent clause and so perhaps here we have a kind of ellipses, i.e., “they asked this because….” Notice that here G uses ἔγνωσαν, rather than a form of ἐπιγινώσκω as in v. 7. The both translate the same Hebrew verb.
ὅτι ἐκ προσώπου κυρίου ἦν φεύγων. For ἐκ προσώπου κυρίου see v. 3. G uses an imperfect periphrastic construction to translate the nominative pronoun (“he” – הוא) + participle (ברח). This tense-form would emphasize a past, continuing aspect.
ὅτι ἀπήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς. Note that here G uses the same compound, ἀπαγγέλλω – “tell by way of explanation, inform.” See v. 8 – same Hebrew verb.
- καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν Τί σοι ποιήσωμεν, καὶ κοπάσει ἡ θάλασσα ἀφ’ ἡμῶν; ὅτι ἡ θάλασσα ἐπορεύετο καὶ ἐξήγειρε μᾶλλον κλύδωνα.
καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν. G demonstrates general serial fidelity with the MT in this verse, but does expand the last clause.
Τί σοι ποιήσωμεν. A deliberative subjunctive expressed as an interrogative. G preposes the dative pronoun σοι, placing it in the focal point of its clause. This is a different word from MT. The Hexaplaric textual tradition follows the Hebrew word order. The Greek with the subjunctive means “what should we do to you/with you?” The Hebrew text can be construed as a simple future, i.e., “what shall we do to you?”
καὶ κοπάσει ἡ θάλασσα ἀφ’ ἡμῶν. The waw conjunction following a future in Hebrew can have a resultative sense. Perhaps this is how καί should be construed, i.e., “and so the sea shall stop what it is doing/cease to be troublesome from us.” The Hebrew verb שתק means “to be quiet.” κοπάζω according to Muraoka means “to lose strength and cease to be troublesome, cease, stop what one is doing.” LEH suggest “to have rest from” (Josh.14.15) or “to become calm” (Gen 8.1) or “to cause to cease, to still (the deep).” According to LSJ it can describe natural phenomenon abating, i.e., wind. For ἀφ’ ἡμῶν see v. 5 – idea of separation, resulting in relief.
ὅτι ἡ θάλασσα ἐπορεύετο καὶ ἐξήγειρε μᾶλλον κλύδωνα. Explanatory clause, outlining why calmness was necessary. The subject is placed first, indicating a clause that adds information. The initial Hebrew verb is a participle, which G renders as an imperfect tense form. The second Hebrew verb also is a participle, rendered as ἐξήγειρε (see v.4, but in that context is describes wind). The Hebrew text just has the verb וסער “and was surging, was becoming stormy.” G translates this as “the sea…was raising a surge even more.” This Greek verb form could be imperfect or aorist, but here, given the initial verb is imperfect, probably is intended to be read as imperfect. It adds the adverb μᾶλλον.
- καὶ εἶπεν Ιωνας πρὸς αὐτούς Ἄρατέ με καὶ ἐμβάλετέ με εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ κοπάσει ἡ θάλασσα ἀφ’ ὑμῶν· διότι ἔγνωκα ἐγὼ ὅτι δι’ ἐμὲ ὁ κλύδων ὁ μέγας οὗτος ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἐστι.
καὶ εἶπεν Ιωνας πρὸς αὐτούς. G reflects general serial fidelity with the MT, but does add Ιωνας in the first clause. This emphasizes that Jonah is saying these things.
Ἄρατέ με καὶ ἐμβάλετέ με εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν. Two aorist imperatives render Hebrew imperatives, each with a first person pronominal suffix. The Hebrew verb rendered by ἐμβάλετέ is translated as ἐξήγειρε in v. 4.
καὶ κοπάσει ἡ θάλασσα ἀφ’ ὑμῶν. G uses exactly the same rendering as in the middle of v. 11, apart from the shift in person from first to second person plural.
διότι ἔγνωκα ἐγὼ. Why does G use the perfect form, rather than the present form? Does G indicate what Jonah “has come to know”? MT uses a participle and pronoun construction. Does διότι mark a dependent or independent clause?
ὅτι δι’ ἐμὲ ὁ κλύδων ὁ μέγας οὗτος ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἐστι. G recognizes the unusual prepositional formation בשׁלי and understands it correctly as “because of me.” ὁ κλύδων ὁ μέγας οὗτος follows the Hebrew word order. G adds ἐστι. ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς could mean “upon you” or “against you.” Muraoka (GELS, 267) notes the ἐπί + accusative can signify “to the disadvantage of.”
- καὶ παρεβιάζοντο οἱ ἄνδρες τοῦ ἐπιστρέψαι πρὸς τὴν γῆν καὶ οὐκ ἠδύναντο, ὅτι ἠ θάλασσα ἐπορεύετο καὶ ἐξηγείρετο μᾶλλον ἐπ’ αὐτούς.
καὶ παρεβιάζοντο οἱ ἄνδρες. G expresses serial fidelity with the MT. The Hebrew verb חתר means “to dig, row.” G, however, renders it with the more general verb παραβιάζω, which means “to endeavor, strive.”
τοῦ ἐπιστρέψαι πρὸς τὴν γῆν. The main verb is completed by a genitive articulated infinitive of purpose τοῦ ἐπιστρέψαι, rendering a Hebrew infinitive. MT has יבשׁה which means “dry land,” but again G opts for a more general term πρὸς τὴν γῆν. See v. 9.
καὶ οὐκ ἠδύναντο. Standard equivalents.
ὅτι ἠ θάλασσα ἐπορεύετο καὶ ἐξηγείρετο μᾶλλον ἐπ’ αὐτούς. ὅτι marks an explanatory clause. G follows Hebrew word order and begins the clause with the subject, indicating that it is adding information. Note similar expressions in v. 11c. Why does G use a middle form here with ἐξηγείρετο (imperfect middle)? Is he emphasizing the action of the sea itself? G adds the adverb μᾶλλον (as in v.11). ἐπ’ αὐτούς again could be spatial “over them” or express hostility “against them.”
- καὶ ἀνεβόησαν πρὸς κύριον καὶ εἶπαν Μηδαμῶς, κύριε, μὴ ἀπολώμεθα ἕνεκεν τῆς ψυχῆς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου, καὶ μὴ δῷς ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς αἷμα δίκαιον, ὅτι σύ, κύριε, ὃν τρόπον έβούλου πεποίηκας.
καὶ ἀνεβόησαν πρὸς κύριον καὶ εἶπαν. G demonstrates serial fidelity with the MT. καὶ ἀνεβόησαν renders ויקראו אל but in v. 5 it rendered ויזעקו אל. This might be a case of G levelling the meaning of the source text by using the same verb for two different Hebrew lexemes. In v. 14 the Hebrew verb קרא means “call to”, rather than “cry out, shout,” as in v. 5. Note here the pagan sailors address their plea to κύριος, which has no article. Is this because of Jonah’s revelation in v. 9?
Μηδαμῶς, κύριε, μὴ ἀπολώμεθα ἕνεκεν τῆς ψυχῆς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου. The Hebrew particle אנה is a term of entreaty, i.e., “we beseech.” G renders this with μηδαμῶς, which expresses a strong negative protest, i.e., “certainly not, oh no.” (See another equivalent at 4.2.) It is strengthened by the second negative μή. The translator uses a first person plural imperative, i.e., “let us not perish, we should not perish,” employing a cohortative subjunctive. τῆς ψυχῆς is the equivalent of בנפשׁ, but the Greek noun here means “life.”
καὶ μὴ δῷς ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς αἷμα δίκαιον. A second entreaty follows, reflecting the source text, with a negative giving this sense “and you should not set upon us just/guiltless blood,” i.e., do not hold us responsible for the death of this man.
ὅτι σύ, κύριε, ὃν τρόπον έβούλου πεποίηκας. ὅτι marks another explanatory clause. The nominative personal pronoun is emphatic in Greek, as it is in Hebrew. Why does G use the perfect tense form πεποίηκας. The Hebrew uses a simple past tense. The use of the imperfect middle ἐβούλου suggests a past incomplete sense of the action in this clause, i.e., “because you, Yahweh, have done according as you were desiring.”
- καὶ ἔλαβον τὸν Ιωναν καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ ἔστη ἡ θάλασσα ἐκ τοῦ σάλου αὐτῆς.
καὶ ἔλαβον τὸν Ιωναν. G follows the word order of its source text. The Hebrew text has the same verb as in v. 12 rendered ἄρατε, but here G chooses ἔλαβον. Is this another example of variation for the sake of style?
καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν. At v. 12 G uses a different compound verb ἐμβάλετε. Here he seems to emphasize the idea of throwing Jonah out of the ship into the sea.
καὶ ἔστη ἡ θάλασσα ἐκ τοῦ σάλου αὐτῆς. In the prepositional phrase the Hebrew text reads מזעפו using a noun which means “storming, raging” and it may be a word play on the use previously of זעק which describes the shout of the men. σάλος means “tossing motion” describing earthquakes or the action of ships on the seas.
- καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν οἱ ἄνδρες φόβῳ μεγάλῳ τὸν κύριον καὶ ἔθυσαν θυσίαν τῷ κυρίῳ καὶ ηὔξαντο εὐχάς.
καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν οἱ ἄνδρες φόβῳ μεγάλῳ τὸν κύριον. G expresses serial fidelity with the MT. Note that in each clause we have a verb and a cognate dative or accusative noun, by which G replicates the MT in each instance. It is a striking climax to this segment of the narrative. In the first clause the cognate noun is a dative of manner, i.e., “they feared with a great fear.” Compare the structure in v. 10 where the noun is a cognate accusative. However, G has to render it this way because את־יהוה is a marked accusative in the clause. So the meaning is “they feared Yahweh with a great fear.”
καὶ ἔθυσαν θυσίαν τῷ κυρίῳ. G uses standard equivalents to describe the sailors’ sacrifice. In this clause ליהוה identifies the recipient of the sacrifice, i.e., “to Yahweh.” What is the function of the article – anaphoric? Many Greek texts read a plural θυσιας, but the source text is singular. In the following clause the object is plural.
καὶ ηὔξαντο εὐχάς. Finally, the narrative says “they pledged vows” presumably to Yahweh. Consider Jonah’s expression in 2.10 where we find similar language of religious ritual. By using this terminology, what is the writer/translator saying about the religious state of these sailors? Have they become monotheists?