Ephesians 1:15-23

1.15. διὰ τοῦτο κἀγὼ ἀκούσας τὴν καθὑμᾶς πίστιν ἐν τῷ κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ καὶ τὴν ἀγάπην τὴν εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους

διὰ τοῦτο – Marks the start of a new segment of discourse. A prepositional phrase but functioning as discourse particle.

κἀγὼ — Ascensive καί. Subject explicit perhaps because main verb is delayed so late in the clause.

 ἀκούσας – Aor act ptc nom sg. Adverbial. How does this action relate to that of the main verb which follows?

τὴν καθὑμᾶς πίστιν — τὴν…πίστιν – Direct object. Compounded with τὴν ἀγάπην. καθ’ ὑμᾶς is a prepositional phrase which acts like a possessive pronoun but with a more limiting force (BDAG 513) – “your very own.”

ἐν τῷ κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ — Locative sense. Ἰησοῦ is appositional. Why the double expression here?

καὶ τὴν ἀγάπην τὴν εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους – This is the second item in the compound direct object. τὴν εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους – nominalized attributive prepositional phrase. εἰς has a sense of motion towards, direction. πάντας is inclusive here. Placing this modifier after its noun gives it some prominence. πάντας is inclusive here.

1.16 οὐ παύομαι εὐχαριστῶν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν μνείαν ποιούμενος ἐπὶ τῶν προσευχῶν μου,

οὐ παύομαι — Pres mid ind 1st sg. What is the sense of middle voice here?

εὐχαριστῶν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν – Pres act ptc nom m sg. Reflects the person of the main verb in number and relates to the subject. Adverbial. The participle complements the verb. What does the present tense form communicate in terms of aspect? Delaying the thanksgiving in a letter is a bit unusual. “render thanks.” ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν defines the persons on whose behalf thanks is being rendered.

μνείαν ποιούμενος – Object of the following participle. ποιούμενος is pres mid ptc nom m sg. What is the force of the middle voice? When used with a noun this verb form a periphrasis for a verbal action related to the noun, i.e., in this case “mentioning” (Rom 1:9).

ἐπὶ τῶν προσευχῶν μου – Prepositional phrase with ἐπί + genitive – answers the question “where?” in relation to the “mentioning.” μου could be a subjective genitive.

1.17 ἵνα θεὸς τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, πατὴρ τῆς δόξης, δώῃ ὑμῖν πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως ἐν ἐπιγνώσει αὐτοῦ,

ἵνα θεὸς τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ — ἵνα marks the intended purpose of his prayers, which is also the content of the prayer (indirect discourse). Prayers are in the form of imperatives and ἵνα does mark indirect imperatives. ὁ θεὸς τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ is the subject of the verb. The genitive is probably genitive of relationship. Consider the phrase in 1:3. Probably indicates submission to the Father. Why the full title here? ἡμῶν probably is genitive of subordination. Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ is appositional to τοῦ κυρίου.

πατὴρ τῆς δόξης –Nominative of apposition. τῆς δόξης is attributive genitive, i.e. “the glorious father”?

δώῃ ὑμῖν — Aor subj act 3rd sg.  ἵνα normally is followed by the subjunctive. What does the aorist tense form express in terms of aspect? ὑμῖν is a dative of indirect object.

πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως – πνεῦμα is an accusative of direct object. In what sense is the Spirit given? I presume it refers to the Holy Spirit, not a human disposition. Why is it anarthrous? σοφίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως are genitives that express the character of this Spirit, one that possesses wisdom and can reveal things. Cf. 3:3.

ἐν ἐπιγνώσει αὐτοῦ — Locative. The noun ἐπιγνώσις probably has the sense of knowledge directed towards something in the sense of discerning, perceiving, recognizing. The αὐτοῦ would be an objective genitive. Paul asks for wisdom and revelation that enables God to be discerned, perceived.

1.18. πεφωτισμένους τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τῆς καρδίας [ὑμῶν] εἰς τὸ εἰδέναι ὑμᾶς τίς ἐστιν ἐλπὶς τῆς κλήσεως αὐτοῦ, τίς πλοῦτος τῆς δόξης τῆς κληρονομίας αὐτοῦ ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις,

πεφωτισμένους – Perf pass ptc acc m pl. Exactly what it refers to and why it is accusative causes much discussion. Perhaps it is connected to the ὑμᾶς in the following infinitive phrase. Why is the perfect tense form used? Perhaps it explains the means by which these Christians know hope, etc.

τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τῆς καρδίας [ὑμῶν] — τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς is accusative of respect. The participle is passive and so would not normally have a direct object. τῆς καρδίας [ὑμῶν] is a genitive of definition, indicating that “eyes” are metaphorical and have to do with cognition and volition – knowledge as ‘insight’.

εἰς τὸ εἰδέναι ὑμᾶς  — Articulated aorist infinitive defined by the preposition εἰς to indicate purpose. The accusative pronoun is the subject of the infinitive.

τίς ἐστιν ἐλπὶς τῆς κλήσεως αὐτοῦ — τίς ἐστιν indirect interrogative clause functioning as the object of εἰδέναι. It is masculine/feminine form because it is referencing ἡ ἐλπίς. The interrogative pronoun is the predicate nominative. ἡ ἐλπὶς τῆς κλήσεως αὐτοῦ is the subject. The genitive could define source or perhaps it is subjective, i.e., the calling from God that produces hope.

τίς πλοῦτος τῆς δόξης τῆς κληρονομίας αὐτοῦ ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις — τίς ὁ πλοῦτος is a second interrogative in this series of three. The noun (v. 7) is the subject and the verb ἐστιν is implied. τῆς δόξης τῆς κληρονομίας αὐτοῦ  begins a string of three genitives, the last of which is possessive. If the first genitive is attributive, then the sense is “the glorious wealth” and the second defines its source. If the second genitive is attributive, then the sense is “the wealth of his glorious inheritance” and together they define the source of the wealth. Expresses the value of God’s people in God’s eyes. ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις – locative, indicating that God’s inheritance is found in his people. Cf. v.11.

1.19  καὶ τί τὸ ὑπερβάλλον μέγεθος τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ εἰς ἡμᾶς τοὺς πιστεύοντας κατὰ τὴν ἐνέργειαν τοῦ κράτους τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ.

καὶ τί τὸ ὑπερβάλλον μέγεθος τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ — This is the third interrogative. It is a nominal clause (no expressed verb). The subject is τὸ…μέγεθος (magnitude), which is modified by the adjectival present active participle ὑπερβάλλον (surpassing, extraordinary, outstanding). τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ could be an attributed genitive, i.e., great power. First of four words describing God’s capacities.

εἰς ἡμᾶς τοὺς πιστεύοντας – The prepositional phrase marked by εἰς indicates metaphorical direction. The present active participle may be adjectival or it could be appositional and thus substantival. What does the first person imply?

κατὰ τὴν ἐνέργειαν τοῦ κράτους τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ — κατά indicates standard, i.e., “in accord with the active power/dynamic activity.” See the verb in the following clause with the cognate verb ἐνήργησεν. Either of the genitives τοῦ κράτους τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ could be attributive as in v. 18 – “his mighty force or his forceful might.”

1.20 ἣν ἐνήργησεν ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ ἐγείρας αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν καὶ καθίσας ἐν δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις

ἣν ἐνήργησεν ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ — ἣν ἐνήργησεν is a relative clause. Referent for the pronoun is the previous ἐνέργειαν. The Pronouns is accusative of direct object. The aorist tense form indicates a summarized action, completed. What does the verb mean? ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ — What does the preposition mean here? Connection/association, spatial, manner? Is the article important?

ἐγείρας αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν — ἐγείρας αὐτὸν – aorist act ptc nom m sg. Adverbial. Referent of the pronominal object is Χριστῷ. Perhaps temporal.  ἐκ νεκρῶν – sense of motion “out from among.” Perhaps even a partitive sense?

καὶ καθίσας ἐν δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις — καὶ καθίσας is an aorist act ptc nom m sg., coordinated with the previous adverbial participle and also temporal. ἐν δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ is a locative adverbial phrase. Lexical sense of the noun determines nuance of the preposition (at). Presumably this is enthronement language referencing the ascension (cf. Ps. 110:1; Daniel 7). ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις is also locative (in). See v. 3. The place where God dwells (Eph. 2:6; 3:10; 6:12).

1.21 ὑπεράνω πάσης ἀρχῆς καὶ ἐξουσίας καὶ δυνάμεως καὶ κυριότητος καὶ παντὸς ὀνόματος ὀνομαζομένου, οὐ μόνον ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι

ὑπεράνω πάσης ἀρχῆς καὶ ἐξουσίας καὶ δυνάμεως — ὑπεράνω is a preposition – “(high) above” indicating rank, followed by genitive case (cf. 4:10). πάσης ἀρχῆς καὶ ἐξουσίας καὶ δυνάμεως – πάσης implies without exception or every kind of. The terms designate various kinds of ruling authority. The Messiah’s session supersedes every level of human authority.

καὶ παντὸς ὀνόματος ὀνομαζομένου – παντὸς again implies there is no exception. Perhaps this is metonymy for any kind of title or office that might possess power. Perhaps the καί is epexegetical. ὀνομαζομένου – pres pass ptc gen n sg. Adjectival modifying the preceding noun. The idea is of a name pronounced in appeal for help – is this a reference to other deities? To name the name of Yahweh is to appeal to him in prayer.

οὐ μόνον ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ — οὐ μόνον… ἀλλὰ καὶ forms a correlative  construction, indicating that others belong in the same class or context. ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ is an adverbial phrase indicating locative of time – located in this time period/age. τούτῳ enhances the contrast by referencing the “nearer” period.

ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι — ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι is a pres act ptc dat m sg., adjectival and modifying an implied αἰῶνι. The article indicates an adjectival function, but may also specify a particular future period.

1.22 καὶ πάντα ὑπέταξεν ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτὸν ἔδωκεν κεφαλὴν ὑπὲρ πάντα τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ,

καὶ πάντα ὑπέταξεν – πάντα is the object and is inclusive of everything (neuter plural). The verb is aorist and the subject remains God. A new sentence it seems.

ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ — Prepositional phrase that has a locative sense of “under” when used with the accusative case. Relates to the previous reference to enthronement.

καὶ αὐτὸν ἔδωκεν  — The aorist verb (subject remains God) governs two objects, the first being αὐτόν. with. The reference to “head” probably has connotations of chief, director. Creates a compound clause with the previous clause.

κεφαλὴν ὑπὲρ πάντα  — The second object κεφαλήν complements the first. The prepositional phrase has a locative sense of “over” and carries forward the all inclusive πάντα used in the previous clause.

τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ — The dative is the indirect object of the verb.

1.23 ἥτις ἐστὶν τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ, τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ τά πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν πληρουμένου.

 ἥτις ἐστὶν τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ — Relative clause. The relative pronoun ἥτις refers to ἐκκλησίᾳ and is a predicate nominative. If the relative has its usual sense, then it means “who by its nature….” τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ corresponds to κεφαλή and is the subject of this copular clause.

τὸ πλήρωμα – Nominative in apposition to τὸ σῶμα. The noun means “fullness, completion, sum total.” BDAG, 829 1b suggests “the complement” of the head, i.e., Christ.

τοῦ τά πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν πληρουμένου — τοῦ…πληρουμένου is a pres mid ptc gen m sg. References the previous αὐτοῦ. If substantive, then it is a genitive describing the source of the πλήρωμα . What is the aspectual application of this present tense form? τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν – direct object and prepositional phrase. The phrase perhaps has an instrumental sense. Nothing is left out in terms of this expression. The Messiah brings everything to appropriate completion.