4.1 παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς ἐγὼ ὁ δέσμιος ἐν κυρίῳ ἀξίως περιπατῆσαι τῆς κλήσεως ἧς ἐκλήθητε,
παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς – The particle οὖν marks a new focus which develops from what previously has been discussed (“so then”). The verb is present active indicative indicating that the exhortation/encouragement is regarded as incomplete in its force. The direct object clearly identifies the audience as the focus of the exhortation.
ἐγὼ ὁ δέσμιος ἐν κυρίῳ — The writer identifies himself in an emphatic and unique fashion, adding force to the exhortation because of who he is and what his role is. Previously he had used the term “apostle” but here he emphasizes his status as the Lord’s representative whom the nations are mistreating by imprisoning him. How they treat him shows their disregard for the status of this Lord. For δέσμιος see Matthew 27:15. The prepositional phrase replaces an expected genitive structure and suggests “association with,” a relational aspect. Why does Paul use κυρίῳ (cf. 1:15; 2:21; 4:17; 5:8; 6:1, 10, 21) here rather than Χριστῷ? Compare the previous phrase in 3:1 ὁ δέσμιος τοῦ Χριστοῦ. Is he saying anything different in 4:1? The “right dislocation” of this subject + epithet gives it emphasis.
ἀξίως περιπατῆσαι τῆς κλήσεως – The aorist active infinitive gives the substance of the exhortation, a form of indirect command. It is qualified by the adverb ἀξίως which defines the manner of this conduct. The genitive phrase is a kind of comparison and defines the values which express such “worthiness.”
ἧς ἐκλήθητε – This relative clause is marked by a genitive feminine singular relative pronoun whose antecedent is τῆς κλήσεως. Its case results from attraction to the case of the antecedent κλήσεως. Within its clause it defines the aorist passive indicative verb. It perhaps functions as an accusative of respect, but is not the direct object. The implied agent is κύριος, the same deity with whom Paul is associated as prisoner. τῆς κλήσεως ἧς ἐκλήθηετε is probably an example of paronomasia.
4.2 μετὰ πάσης ταπεινοφροσύνης καὶ πραΰτητος, μετὰ μακροθυμίας, ἀνεχόμενοι ἀλλήλων ἐν ἀγάπῃ,
μετὰ πάσης ταπεινοφροσύνης καὶ πραΰτητος – An adverbial prepositional phrase which modifies the previous infinitive. The preposition μετά + genitive expresses association and some sense of manner. The two nouns are jointly modified by πάσης which here means “complete.” Both nouns refer to characteristics associated with humility and meekness.
μετὰ μακροθυμίας – The repetition of the preposition with this noun sets it apart from the previous two items. The prepositional phrase is adverbial and expresses association. The noun means “patience, calmness.”
ἀνεχόμενοι ἀλλήλων ἐν ἀγάπῃ — An adverbial present participle, but in the nominative masculine plural. Could it have a causal sense? The only second plural person subject (implied) would be the subject of ἐκλήθητε at the end of v. 1. However, the ad sensum referent seems to be the subject of the infinitive in v. 1, which normally would require an accusative. The verb means “bear with, show tolerance towards.” It is completed by a genitive object, which in this case is ἀλλήλων. The final adverbial prepositional phrase describes the manner in which tolerance is displayed, perhaps with a causal sense.
4.3 σπουδάζοντες τηρεῖν τὴν ἑνότητα τοῦ πνεύματος ἐν τῷ συνδέσμῳ τῆς εἰρήνης·
σπουδάζοντες – An adverbial present participle, parallel with ἀνεχόμενοι. It describes eagerness, hasty action. It might be causal.
τηρεῖν τὴν ἑνότητα τοῦ πνεύματος – The infinitive completes the sense of the participle, i.e., “eager to keep.” The present active infinitive means to “keep, maintain, preserve.” It is often used in the Greek OT to describe keeping the laws of the Torah. It is defined by the object τὴν ἑνότητα. In chapter 2 Paul had said that the goal of Christ’s death and resurrection was to create one new man out of two. This new unity is ascribed to “the Spirit” indicated by the genitive phrase and probably indicating the source of the unity. What function does the article (τὴν ἑνότητα) have here – referencing something known by the writer and audience?
ἐν τῷ συνδέσμῳ τῆς εἰρήνης – The adverbial prepositional phrase may describe the means by which this unity is maintained. The dative noun describes something that binds together. The genitive phrase describes the source or cause of this bonding process, namely peace. So it could be a subjective genitive, i.e., the binding which peace produces. Again, what is the function of the article?
4.4 ἓν σῶμα καὶ ἓν πνεύμα, καθὼς καὶ ἐκλήθητε ἐν μιᾷ ἐλπίδι τῆς κλήσεως ὑμῶν·
ἓν σῶμα καὶ ἓν πνεύμα – Paul makes a declaration here using a verbless clause without any connecting particle. Presumably this initial pair is part of the series that continues in v. 5. The numeral functions adjectivally in all probability. In 2:16 he has affirmed that Christ’s death has resulted in the creation of ἑνὶ σώματι and he will develop this metaphor in 4:15-16. Presumably ἓν πνεῦμα refers to the Holy Spirit.
καθὼς καὶ ἐκλήθητε – The subordinate conjunction καθὼς introduces a comparative clause. The καὶ is ascensive in force, modifying the following verb, which is an aorist passive indicative reflecting the same form in 4:1. Paul is describing a consistency or comparison between the “one body and one Spirit” and the manner of their calling, i.e., “in one hope.”
ἐν μιᾷ ἐλπίδι τῆς κλήσεως ὑμῶν – The adverbial prepositional phrase defines the means by which “you have been called.” There are not multiple authentic hopes that God has provided to humans, but one, singular hope that derives from God’s calling. The genitive phrase defines the source or origin of this hope. The genitive pronoun functions as an objective genitive, i.e., the calling which included you in God’s purposes. ἐκλήθητε…τῆς κλήσεως is another case of paranomasia, repeating the other occurrence in v. 1. Why is Paul emphasizing this theme so much?
4.5 εἷς κύριος, μία πίστις, ἓν βάπτισμα,
εἷς κύριος – Paul’s list continues. Why this continued emphasis upon “one”? Do we treat each of these expressions functionally as verbless clauses, i.e., “there is one lord”? Who is being described by κύριος? Presumably it is Jesus given that ὁ θεὸς occurs in the next verse.
μία πίστις – Another verbless clause. What kind of πίστις is Paul referring to? Saving faith, faithfulness, faith as content of the gospel? Is this a declaration that there is only one way to experience God’s calling and that is by putting faith in Christ? The following reference to baptism might encourage this interpretation.
ἓν βάπτισμα – Paul points to one, single ritual of purification within the Christian faith.
4.6 εἷς θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ πάντων, ὁ ἐπὶ πάντων καὶ διὰ πάντων καὶ ἐν πᾶσιν.
εἷς θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ πάντων – All of the previous unities derive essentially from the primal unity of God himself, which is the fundamental affirmation of the Jewish faith. Paul adds the term πατὴρ to define God. Given his use of this term in 3:14-15 and its reference to God’s action in creating humans and spiritual beings, presumably the genitive πάντων continues with this theme.
ὁ ἐπὶ πάντων καὶ διὰ πάντων καὶ ἐν πᾶσιν – Paul adds a further qualifier using the article and three parallel prepositional phrase, with πᾶς. This repetition is rhetorical and serves to expand the way in which God is “father of all things.” The article links the various prepositions adjectivally with θεός and they define how God relates in various ways to his creation – over all things, through all things, in all things. With these phrases what is Paul affirming about God’s relationship to his creation? Is this what the language of “fullness” refers to (cf. 1:23; 3:19)? Note the contrast between εἷς and πᾶς in this clause.
4.7 ἑνὶ δὲ ἑκάστῳ ἡμῶν ἐδόθη ἡ χάρις κατὰ τὸ μέτρον τῆς δωρεᾶς τοῦ Χριστοῦ.
ἑνὶ δὲ ἑκάστῳ ἡμῶν – The particle δέ marks an advance in the discourse. The dative is an indirect object qualifying the following verb. Its position gives it prominence. The genitive pronoun indicates the group which is being particularized. It is a partitive genitive.
ἐδόθη ἡ χάρις – The subject follows the aorist passive verb. The same phrase occurs in 3:8 (cf. 3:2) to describe Paul’s involvement by God in his plans and now he applies to every believer. What is the function of the article – deictic?
κατὰ τὸ μέτρον τῆς δωρεᾶς τοῦ Χριστοῦ — The adverbial prepositional phrase indicates the standard of measurement used by God to provide his favour to every believer. It is the “gift of the Messiah” that defines this measure. Does this mean it is the Messiah who gives each gift? Or is the Messiah himself the gift that enables humans to experience God’s blessing in this way? Perhaps it means “the generosity of Christ.” The quotation that follows indicates that Paul means “the gifts that the Messiah gives” and so the genitive is probably subjective.
4.8 διὸ λέγει· ἀναβὰς εἰς ὕψος ᾐχμαλώτευσεν αἰχμαλωσίαν, ἔδωκεν δόματα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις.
διὸ λέγει – The introductory particle is summarizing the previous discourse and the quotation, which is the summary, provides the authorization for Paul’s statement in v. 7. The subject of λέγει is left unexpressed. It could be God or it might be a reference to the Scriptures, i.e., “it says.”
ἀναβὰς εἰς ὕψος – The quotation comes from Psalm 67:19 LXX (Heb. 68:18). It begins with an adverbial aorist participle modified by an adverbial prepositional phrase of direction. “The heights” probably is a reference to heaven. Is the participle temporal, i.e., “after/when he ascended…”? LXX text reads ἀνέβης – aorist act. ind. 2nd sg.
ᾐχμαλώτευσεν αἰχμαλωσίαν – The aorist active indicative verb indicates a completed action. Hebrew often used cognate structures and the Greek translation reflects it here. What metaphorically is “captivity” referring to? Death, sin, hell? LXX reads ᾐχμαλώτευσας – aorist act. ind. 2nd sg.
ἔδωκεν δόματα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις – Whether this is concurrent with the previous aorist verb or subsequent is not clear. The same subject does both actions. The accusative-dative nouns are the standard direct object-indirect object qualifiers for δίδωμι. ἀνθρώποις is generic here referring to human beings in general. LXX reads ἔλαβες δόματα ἐν ἀνθρώπῳ (“you received gifts by a person” NETS).
4.9 τὸ δὲ ἀνέβη τί ἐστιν, εἰ μὴ ὅτι καὶ κατέβη εἰς τὰ κατώτερα [μέρη] τῆς γῆς;
τὸ δὲ ἀνέβη – The article serves a nominalizing function enabling the verb form to function as a noun in this clause, but it also has a deictic function, i.e., “this verb ἀνέβη.” δέ serves to mark an advance in the discourse. The subject forms a left-dislocation in that it is the subject of the following interrogative equative clause. In the case of Jesus the ἀνέβη may refer to his ascension or to his preincarnate existence, according to some exegetes.
τί ἐστιν — The interrogative τί is neuter singular. An interrogative clause.
εἰ μὴ ὅτι καὶ κατέβη – εἰ μὴ marks an exceptive clause. Implied with εἰ μή is the verb ἐστιν. The καὶ is ascensive in force modifying the verb. The verb is second aorist active indicative and is the opposite of ἀνέβη. There is discussion as to whether this refers to the incarnation or to the period between his death and resurrection. The use of these two verbs marks a distinct contrast in Jesus’ activity.
εἰς τὰ κατώτερα [μέρη] τῆς γῆς – This adverbial prepositional phrase indicates the direction towards which the subject descended. The adjective κατώτερα functions as a substantive and is a comparative form of the adjective (lower). English translations indicate that this can refer to Christ’s descent to “the lower parts, the earth,” or to the regions beneath the earth. In the first instance the genitive τῆς γῆς is read epexegetically. In the second case it is read as definition, i.e., the lower parts related to the earth.
4.10 ὁ καταβὰς αὐτός ἐστιν καὶ ὁ ἀναβὰς ὑπεράνω πάντων τῶν οὐρανῶν, ἵνα πληρώσῃ τὰ πάντα.
ὁ καταβὰς αὐτός – The writer used no particles to indicate how this clause relates to what precedes. An articulated substantival participle (aorist active) acts as subject of ἐστιν. It is modified by the intensive pronoun, i.e., “the one who descended himself is….”
ἐστιν καὶ — The verb functions equatively to link the subject and predicate nominative. The καὶ is ascensive qualifying the following participle.
ὁ ἀναβὰς ὑπεράνω πάντων τῶν οὐρανῶν – An articulated substantival participle (aorist active) acting as the predicate nominative in the equative clause. The participle is modified by the adverbial prepositional phrase which indicates a spatial change with the preposition ὑπεράνω (cf. 1:21). It governs the following genitive phrase. πάντων is used inclusively to indicate all the heavens that might exist. Presumably the reference to “heavens” contrasts with the mention of “the earth” in the previous verse.
ἵνα πληρώσῃ τὰ πάντα – Purpose clause which explains why this action of descending and ascending is necessary for the Messiah. He is the subject of the verb which is aorist active subjunctive. The object of the verb refers to the created universe. How does he “fill” it? Does it mean that the Messiah in himself brings to fulfillment what God has planned for the universe?
4.11 καὶ αὐτὸς ἔδωκεν τοὺς μὲν ἀποστόλους, τοὺς δὲ προφήτας, τοὺς δὲ εὐαγγελιστάς, τοὺς δὲ ποιμένας καὶ διδασκάλους,
This verse begins a long, complex sentence that extends to the end of v. 16.
καὶ αὐτὸς ἔδωκεν – The writer connects this clause with what precedes by the coordinating conjunction καί. It is unclear whether αὐτός is used as an emphatic 3rd person pronominal subject “he” or whether it entails an intensive sense, i.e., “he, himself,…” Again the verb is δίδωμι in aorist active indicative form. There is no expressed indirect object.
τοὺς μὲν ἀποστόλους – The writer gives four objects identified by the coordinating particles μέν…δέ which here have the sense of “some…others.” The gifts are identified as people who fill certain roles within the Christian movement. We cannot presume this list is expected to be regarded as an exhaustive list, but rather is representative, indicating some of the more essential functions. Interestingly they all have to do with aspects of communicating the gospel message in some form. There might also be a chronological element to this ordering as the “apostles,” if this references the Twelve, would be the first gifts that appeared, followed by prophets and evangelists and then pastor-teachers as assemblies came into existence. Although the Gospel narratives indicate who the “apostles” initially are, we have no specificity when it comes to the other groups. Sometimes individuals in the post-resurrection materials are denominated as prophets, but we have little evidence to help us discern the scope of this term, i.e., who would qualify and for what reasons.
τοὺς δὲ προφήτας – This term probably refers to individuals in the emerging Christian movement who have insight into God’s plans and purposes and thus can help individuals and assemblies discern God’s will.
τοὺς δὲ εὐαγγελιστάς – Paul tells Timothy to “do the work of an evangelist.” However, we again are bereft of specific examples to understand this role, unless people such as Stephen or Barnabas might qualify. It suggests that not every believer is gifted to function as an evangelist. How does this role function within the church to “restore the saints for works of service”? Are these people who know the stories of the “good news” regarding Jesus and serve to keep these stories alive for people in the congregation?
τοὺς δὲ ποιμένας καὶ διδασκάλους – In this last category Paul links into one function (Granville Sharp rule) two different aspects – shepherd and teacher, using a single article for both. It is unclear why he does this. What does the role of “shepherd” in a congregation have to do with the role of “teacher”? Paul expects his audience to understand these things without giving further commentary – which frustrates us today. Is this an example of “hendiadys”?
4.12 πρὸς τὸν καταρτισμὸν τῶν ἁγίων εἰς ἔργον διακονίας, εἰς οἰκοδομὴν τοῦ σώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ,
πρὸς τὸν καταρτισμὸν τῶν ἁγίων – Whether we place a comma after ἁγίων is widely debated. Removing it has become popular recently and this has the effect of making “the saints” responsible “for the work of service.” Of course, we might ask why then we should retain a comma after διακονίας? Paul uses three adverbial prepositional phrases and their inter-relationship is not at all clear. Individually they all follow the same structure – preposition + head noun + genitive modifier. The first and third seem in some sense to qualify the verb ἔδωκεν. πρός suggests it defines a direction or outcome. The noun καταρτισμός means “restoration, make qualified or adequate.” It applies to setting bones for healing or mending nets. τῶν ἁγίων probably is an objective genitive.
εἰς ἔργον διακονίας – This adverbial prepositional phrase with εἰς suggests purpose. If it is linked with καταρισμός, then it defines the purpose for this work of restoration which occurs among “the holy ones.” διακονία is the most general term used to describe the activities that people engage as representatives of Jesus within or without the church. It can describe leadership roles, various assisting roles, etc. Paul often describes his work as an apostle by this term.
εἰς οἰκοδομὴν τοῦ σώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ — Should we take this adverbial prepositional phrase as an explanation or elaboration of the previous εἰς clause or should we apply it to ἔδωκεν? Paul has used the term οἰκοδομή with reference to activity in the church in Ephesians 2: 21. The noun can refer to an act of construction or the result of that action, i.e., a building. Probably it is construction that is meant here. However, linking the activity of construction with a “body” is an unusual combination. Paul links the image of congregation as a building with its image as the body of Christ and melds the two together. The genitive τοῦ σώματος is probably objective genitive, with τοῦ Χριστοῦ being possessive or perhaps epexegetic (the body = Christ).
4.13 μέχρι καταντήσωμεν οἱ πάντες εἰς τὴν ἑνότητα τῆς πίστεως καὶ τῆς ἐπιγνώσεως τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ, εἰς ἄνδρα τέλειον, εἰς μέτρον ἡλικίας τοῦ πληρώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ,
μέχρι καταντήσωμεν οἱ πάντες – The adverbial conjunction μέχρι has a temporal sense of “until” and in this case is followed by an aorist subjunctive verb form which expresses some idea of contingency. Presumably the writer does not know exactly when this will occur. The subject is defined by οἱ πάντες which allows for diversity within the group, but still includes the entire group, however defined. It gives precision to the first person plural ending of the verb, i.e., “we all.” The verb has the sense of attain, arrive it. The root verb signifies to meet.
εἰς τὴν ἑνότητα τῆς πίστεως καὶ τῆς ἐπιγνώσεως — The adverbial prepositional phrase marked by εἰς indicates the goal or destination to which they seek to attain. The writer declares this as oneness or unity, using the same term from v. 3 (the oneness/unity of the Spirit) and expressed by the extensive list of “ones” in vv. 4-7. The genitives probably express the basis for this unity or its origin, namely faith and full knowledge. The repeated article with the genitives indicates that they are to be regard as separate elements.
τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ — It is difficult to know whether this genitive defines both of the preceding genitives or just τῆς ἐπιγνώσεως. I think the repeated article tips the scales towards the second interpretation – the full knowledge of the Son of God. Perhaps this hints at the eschatological disclosure that will come when the Messiah returns. Cf. 1:17.
εἰς ἄνδρα τέλειον – This second adverbial prepositional phrase gives an additional outcome that may be attained at some point. Should we interpret this individually of believers, i.e., each one becomes mature in Christ and fully restored in the image of God? Or should we understand this as a collective metaphor refer to the fully developed body of Christ, i.e., the completeness of the church described as a mature, full-developed person? Note how the body language is developed in v. 16. The lack of an article suggests a generic image. The reference to τέλειος suggests an eschatological frame of reference. Is the word order important, giving slight prominence to the adjective?
εἰς μέτρον ἡλικίας – A third adverbial prepositional phrase which probably adds further information to the previous phrase and defining what “complete, mature, perfect” means. The writer speaks of a particular “measurement” as the goal for this unity. The measurement is defined by a chain of three genitive phrases. The first genitive ἡλικίας continues the spatial/physical analogy by defining the measurement as one of stature or height.
τοῦ πληρώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ — The second and third genitives indicates that this stature relates to Christ’s dimensions, as it were, his “fullness/completeness.” The writer speaks of the church as the “body of Christ,” employs a human analogy of growth related to a human body maturing to its full development, and then relates this to complete fulfillment of Christ’s plans for the church, so that he is head of the fully mature body, i.e., the church. The second genitive might be expexegetical. The third genitive may be descriptive or objective.
4.14 ἵνα μηκέτι ὦμεν νήπιοι, κλυδωνιζόμενοι καὶ περιφερόμενοι παντὶ ἀνέμῳ τῆς διδασκαλίας ἐν τῇ κυβείᾳ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ἐν πανουργίᾳ πρὸς τὴν μεθοδείαν τῆς πλάνης,
ἵνα μηκέτι ὦμεν νήπιοι – This is dependent purpose clause. What does it define, the previous μέχρι clause or the main clause in v.11? Given the use of νήπιοι (predicate nominative), I suspect it refers to v. 13 and the analogy of the “mature man.” Also the negative adverb μηκέτι corresponds to the sense of μέχρι. The plural νήπιοι bears upon the sense of the previous phrase εἰς ἄνδρα τέλειον. Does the plural suggest an application to individual believers?
κλυδωνιζόμενοι καὶ περιφερόμενοι – These adverbial participles relate to the subject of the ἵνα clause. They indicate what characterizes this group as νήπιοι. They are both present passive participles indicating first the motion of waves that toss around a boat and then a more general sense of being carried around (cf. Mark 6:55). The present tense form suggests an incompleted action.
παντὶ ἀνέμῳ τῆς διδασκαλίας – The dative noun phrase marks the means which causes this kind of activity. It qualifies both of the preceding participles. The use of παντὶ indicates “every kind of wind.” The genitive phrase indicates that “wind” is being used metaphorically to refer to teaching and can be regarded as epexegetic.
ἐν τῇ κυβείᾳ τῶν ἀνθρώπων – The use of ἐν here may be associative, i.e., “teaching, associated with human trickery/craftiness.” The noun κυβεία is associated with card-playing and the sleight of hand that occurs within such activities. Paul at this point does not define who these “humans” are that engage in this kind of treacherous activity. It may be a subjective genitive.
ἐν πανουργίᾳ — This adverbial prepositional phrase probably parallels the preceding one, giving greater precision to the nature of the trickery involved. The noun describes cunning, often with an evil twist (cf. 2 Cor. 11:3).
πρὸς τὴν μεθοδείαν τῆς πλάνης – This adverbial prepositional phrase seems to describe the goal of such evil cunning, namely the crafty scheming to advance deception. The genitive could be subjective, i.e., the crafty scheming promoted by deception, or objective, i.e., the crafty scheming that results in deception. See 6:11 for similar terminology.
4.15 ἀληθεύοντες δὲ ἐν ἀγάπῃ αὐξήσωμεν εἰς αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα, ὅς ἐστιν ἡ κεφαλή, Χριστός,
ἀληθεύοντες δὲ ἐν ἀγάπῃ — The adverbial present active participle modifies the following verb and defines circumstances necessary for growth desired. “Speaking truth” contrasts with the previous discussion about crafty deception. The adverbial prepositional phrase describes the means and/or manner by which such truth-telling proceeds. The δέ probably reflects the contrast between truth and deception, as well as the change from being infants to growth into mature people. In this contrast it advances the discourse by marking a new element.
αὐξήσωμεν εἰς αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα – The aorist active subjunctive may continue the purpose clause structure from v.14 or it may be interpreted as a cohortative, i.e., “let us grow up…” and thus introducing an new sentence, ending the complex sentence at v.14. The adverbial prepositional phrase indicates the direction or goal of this growth “into/towards him” and this is defined in the following relative clause. τὰ πάντα is probably an adverbial accusative of respect. The verb can take a direct object as its use in v. 16 demonstrates. However, it is unclear what “let us grow all things to/for him” would mean.
ὅς ἐστιν ἡ κεφαλή, Χριστός – The relative clause is marked by the nominative relative pronoun whose antecedent is the preceding αὐτὸν. This is an equative clause with ἡ κεφαλή functioning as the predicate nominative. Χριστός is an appositional modifier, removing any ambiguity about what the “head” refers to.
4.16 ἐξ οὗ πᾶν τὸ σῶμα συναρμολογούμενον καὶ συμβιβαζόμενον διὰ πάσης ἁφῆς τῆς ἐπιχορηγίας κατ’ ἐνέργειαν ἐν μέτρῳ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου μέρους τὴν αὔξησιν τοῦ σώματος ποιεῖται εἰς οἰκοδομὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ.
ἐξ οὗ — This adverbial prepositional phrase introduces a relative clause. The antecedent of the genitive pronoun is the preceding Χριστός. The phrase regards the Messiah essentially as responsible for the body’s growth. This presumably occurs because he is the “head of this body.”
πᾶν τὸ σῶμα – This is the subject of the verb in the relative clause (ποιεῖται). The construction with πᾶν indicates “all the body” without distinction as to parts. Its position so far in advance of the verb gives it prominence.
συναρμολογούμενον καὶ συμβιβαζόμενον – These two adverbial present middle(?) participles express the manner in which the activity located in the main verb happens. If they are middle, then this emphasizes the active participation of the body in its growth. The first participle expresses the idea of “fitting together in a coherent and compatible manner.” The second one emphasizes the idea of “functioning in a unified manner.” Notice the other pair of adverbial participles in v. 14.
διὰ πάσης ἁφῆς τῆς ἐπιχορηγίας – This adverbial prepositional phrase modifies the two participles and expresses the idea of means. The unity and coherence occurs because “every ligament” is doing its appropriate job and contributing to the functioning of the “all the body.” The genitive qualifier τῆς ἐπιχορηγίας seems to define the function of the ligaments as “supports” for the body. It is perhaps then a descriptive genitive, i.e., “through/by means of every ligament of support” or perhaps epexegetic (“ligament = support”).
κατ’ ἐνέργειαν – An adverbial prepositional phrase indicating a standard of activity that defines how each ligament is operating, “in accordance with action/operation/working.”
ἐν μέτρῳ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου μέρους – This adverbial prepositionl phrase seems to define the nature of the ἐνέργεια and puts it into association with an “appropriate measure of each single part.” It seems to suggest that each ligament has an optimum operating capacity as it contributes to the growth of the body and this is being achieved in relation to each part.
τὴν αὔξησιν τοῦ σώματος – This the direct object of ποιεῖται. The subject of the verb is πᾶν τὸ σῶμα and as it operates coherently it produces the “growth of the body.”
ποιεῖται – Present middle indicative. The middle form emphasizes the involvement of the subject in the action of the verb. The present tense form indicates an incompleted action, i.e., it is continuing in some way.
εἰς οἰκοδομὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ — An adverbial prepositional phrase that defines ποιεῖται. It defines the goal of this activity, name the construction of itself. The genitive reflexive pronoun has σῶμα as the antecedent. This work of construction proceeds within the framework of ἀγάπη, defining the manner of the construction.